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Council of Planning Librarians exchange bibliography 

May 1972 


DEMAND: Some Hypotheses and a Bibliography 

Richard C. Harkness 
Urban Transportation Program 

Departments of Urban Planning and Civil Engineering 
University of Washington 

Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor 
Post Office Box 229 
Monticello, Illinois 61856 

MAY 15 ^97? 


COUNCIL OF PLMNING LIBRARlAi^IS Sxchange Bibliography #28^ 


Some Hypotheses and a Bibliography 


Richard C. Harkness 

Urban Transportation Program 

Departments of Urban Planning and Civil Engineering 

University of Washington 

- Seattle, Washington 98195 

This report was produced as part of a Research and Trairdng 
Program in Urban Transportation sponsored by the Urban Mass Trans- 
portation Administration of the United States Department of Trans- 

The results and views expressed are the independent products 
of university research and are not necessarily concurred in by the 
Urban Mass Transportation Administration of the Department of 


















2. CPL Exchange Bibliography #265 


Hypotheses are developed about the effects of teleeoBnunl ca- 
tions advances on urban growth patterns and xirban travel denaads. 
It is suggested that CBD office enqployment might decentralize if 
telecomiminications co\ild effectively substitute for short inter- 
office business trips and that job decentralization wcwld alter 
journey- to-viork patterns and the viability of certain public tran- 
sit systems. Kajor research questions are raised and keyed to an 
extensive bibliography. 

3* CPL Exchange Bibliography /;'285 


The author is indebted to the Boeing Compare'-, whose continued 
interest and support has made this research possible, and to the 
members of his doctoral coiranittee: Doctors Edward Wank, Jr. 
(Chairman), Virgil 2. Harder, Richard A. Johnson, Thomas P. Rona, 
and Jerry B. Schneider for their guidance and encouragement. 

In addition, the author greatly appreciates the generosity of 
Dr. Alex Reid, of the Communications Study Group at the Joint Unit 
for Planning Research, London, for making available a large number 
of excellent references during the author's recent ijorking visit. 
Mr. Robert Hall, of the Location of Offices Bureau, also provided 
many useful references and his help is gratefully acknowledged. 

Finally, the author appreciates the assistance of Dorothy 
Linder, Barbara Hehr and Joyce O'Brien in preparing this publica- 

U* CPL Exchange idbliogrephy p2fc5 

P/P.T I 


Advances in teleccraroinications have been so rapid, so poverf"al 
and so iddespread that their irpact on society has teen called a 
revolution — the coranuni cations revolution. V.'ith CATV, pdcture- 
phone, rapid facsimile, and nev? data netvorks on the near horizon 
this revolution is sweeping in, inexorably, and with increasing 

A question that has received niuch speculation and alnost no 
substantive research is that of technology impact or tecm«)logy 
assessment, VJhat i-dll be the effects of drastically reducing the 
cost and effort of coranunication on social processes, political 
processes, the conduct of business, the urban fom, and on travel? 
One speculation found often in the literature is that radically 
improved communications nay substitute for inter-office biisiness 
trips and thus weaken the ties that bind office er^Jloynent to the 
center cities. The general result vould be a more dispersed urban 
form, perhaps in the pattern of Los Angeles but even less dense. 
It has also been suggested that people right vork at hone and tele- 
commute to work from closed circuit TV consoles. The office right 
cease to exist except as a switchboard and electronic data bank 
tucked away in any convenient location. 

The implications of such a dispersal vould be of the utmost 
importance to ui'ban planners, transportation agencies, property 
owners, and the general public. The purpose of this report is to 
discuss some hypotheses on connuni cations iji5)act, outline the major 

$. CPL Exchange Bibliography j'2Q$ 

research questions, and present a fairly extensive bibliography 
with the hope that it may stimulate others to conduct investigations 
in this inportant area. 

6. CPL Zxch£inge ELbl:.' .,_ 


The concept of substituting ccmunications for transportation 
is not a new one. Zver since man began using signal fires or >rrit- 
ing letters communications has been substituted for travel. The 
telegraph and telephone have provided real-time corrunicaticn and 
it is difficult to imagine hov many trips they have saved. Never- 
theless, it is almost impossible to imagine hcv any electronic 
communications channel could be substituted for many social or 
recreational trips or hov; it could be substituted for a patient's 
trip to the hospital. Hovever, vrhat we are concerned vlth here is 
the large number of business trips that are made in order to con- 
duct face-to-face discussions and to work over various written or 
graphic material. These trips do not require any phj-sical contact 
between participants. Both intuition and some actiial experinents 
suggest that two-v/ay television and facsimile should suffice in 
many cases. There is also the possibility that advanced audio con- 
ferencing might be quite effective and be far less e:q)ensive than 
two-v;ay video. The question is not whether teleconferencing is 
better than face-to-face, but rather whether its advantages out- 
v;eigh its disadvantages. For excrple, teleconferences eliminate 
travel time and e^ense, allow faster inf crr.stion turnaround and 
decision making, more short vinschediled meetings, more Iccational 
freedom, and probably use less material and energy resoxirees. 

Therefore, what appears to be emerging is a ccr.petition bet- 
ween eoirjminications and transportation facilities for servicing 
the large number of contacts that now require travel but which 

7. GPL Exchange Bibliography ,f285 
might possibly be made electronically. Planners are interested 
in the modal split between travel and teleconferencing, in other 
words the relative percentage of all contacts that use each mode. 
They are interested in forecasting the shift of this modal split 
over the next twenty years. Certainly any improvements in trans- 
port will tend to increase its share j however, it appears that com- 
munication services can be extended and improved more readily than 
can transport services since communications facilities have low 
visibility and are largely controlled by private firms whereas 
transport facilities are highly visible, controversial, and depen- 
dent on a public-political decision-making process for iir^^lementa- 
tion. Therefore it is probable that corrmuni cations xnll tend to 
improve faster than transport and a relative shift from real travel 
to tele-travel should result. 

VJe cajinot assume that if communications can be effectively 
substituted for certain trips that it i-dll reduce the absolute 
level of demand for travel. The absolute growth in the number of 
contacts may be enough to offset any trips lost by a shift in the 
modal split share. For example, the growth in social and recrea- 
tional travel could greatly exceed arQr loss of business travel. 
Finally, there is the possibility that communication may stimulate 
travel and vice versa. Usually telephone calls precede a meeting 
and the meeting itself provides topics for further communication. 
This argument has been used to disclaim the threat vrhich telecom- 
munications might pose to the transportation industryj however, 
its validity remains to be proved, l-ieetings do beget contacts. 

8. CPL Ejcchange filtliogrephy #28$ 

but Is it necessary that the meetings involve travel? V*o\ild not a 
teleccnference be as effective aa a face-to-face meeting in stin- 
ulating new contacts? y.nd might not telephone calls lead to tele- 
conferences rather than trips? 

There are other questions that arise concerning the iapact of 
telecommunications of \irban form and travel. Perhaps the questions 
of impact should be explored even before ve delve into the problen 
of how effective telecommunications could be as a substitute for 
face-to-face meetings. If no significant impact could be foreseen, 
then the question of substitution is only of academic interest to 
the urban planner. 

Let us assume na\.r that telecommunications does turn out to be 
a viable alternative to business travel in mzixy cases. How right 
this affect the fut\ire of our cities? V'e recognize that the pre- 
sent size and shape of cities and the location of activities with- 
in the cities is largely the result of individual location deci- 
sions. The "conprehensive plans" that are intended to shape urban 
development lack teeth and are largely ineffective; thus the evolu- 
tion of the urban form simply reflects an aggregation of individual, 
self-serving location decisions. Certainly zoning, taxes, trans- 
portation, topography, and other factors influence and constrain 
individual location choices but there is still considerable freedon 
for the individual office or factory to take advantage of new tech- 
nologies and locate where it sees fit. The irportant point is that 
highly effective ccanmuni cations systems maj' provide new location 
opportunities, activities nay seize these cpport unities, and a new 

9. GPL Exchange Bibliography ,v285 
urban form may emerge td-thout any overall policy guidance. This 
new urban form may render transportation systems and plans obso- 
lete, may conflict desired land use policy as expressed in 
comprehensive plans, may radically alter property values and may 
create a new pseudo-urban life stj^'le. The implication for planners 
is clear. If they cannot stall the communications revolution, if 
they cannot control location decisions, then they should attempt 
to understand this phenomenon, predict its likely impact and re- 
structure their plans accordingly. In particular, plans calling 
for high capacity, radial rapid rail transit systems should be re- 
evaluated in light of a possible decentralization of expected 
downtown office groTith, 

On the other hand, communications technology could be viewed 
as a new tool for shaping urban development. Just like transpor- 
tation, communications could be provided to certain areas to en- 
courage employment grorth. Dr. Peter Goldmark, former president 
of CBS Labs, plans such a positive application of technology in 
Connecticut. In his HUD-funded "city of the future" program, ad- 
vanced telecommunications would be used to enable certain office 
functions to move from a crowded coastal city to rural Connecticut 
while still maintaining close contact vrith the head office. 

The above impacts have dealt xdth land use. It is also poss- 
ible to look at the impact of ecom (electronics communications) on 
long distance business travel. The British Post Office recently 
opened thoir intercity, closed circuit, COLIFRAVISION studios for 
business. Jayy groups wishing to hold a remote conference, saj" 

10. CPL Exchange Bitliogr^hy #285 

between London and Glasgov;, sirply make an appointxaent, go to the 
respective studios, and sit before the car^ra vhile vieving their 
coiinterparts on a standard television monitor. General £lectric 
offers a somewhat similar send.ce called the "Coinnand FerforBanoe 
Netv?ork" in the United States altho\igh theirs is a nore expensive, 
customized, large screen ser^ce. In a local context, the Hew York 
Metropolitan Regional Council plsns to have a closed circ\iit T7 
system connecting government offices in seven comunities around 
ilevj York, The stated purpose of their system is to elirdnate tiroe- 
consuming travel for officials and increase the efficiency of con- 
munication and decision making. 

There is also the ver;' real prospect of remote shopping which 
would utilize the tv;o-way capability being built into most new 
cable TV networks. In the simpler systems the housewife would 
vjatch a channel or channels devoted to displaying and describing 
various products. Upon seeing a desired product she would press a 
button on the TV and her order vould be recorded and subsequently 
delivered. If rddely adopted, remote shopping could reverse the 
present trend in paving over great suburban ejqjanees for shcppir.g 
center parking lots and could also reduce off-peak auto usa^. 

The above list of technology ir^sacts could be greatly extend- 
ed. The possibilities which can be envisioned in a few Kinutes 
are exciting aixi sometimes frightening. It is apparent that great 
changes could be caused in travel demand patterns, in locational 
behavior, and in every activity that involves ccnninicaticn. Sone 
industries wo\0.d stagnate v^uJLe others would flourish. Sone per- 
sons would profit while others ifould suffer losses. The onl^' con- 
stant \>dll be change. 

11. CPL Exchange Bibliography #285 
From the spectrum of possibilities, the author has chosen to 
examine only the impact of telecom advances on urban form and 
travel demands. The folloidng paragraphs are limited to that 

Aside from historic needs for defense, the city has emerged 
as the appropriate spatial framework for an economy based on a 
specialization of labor and production. Advances in art, science, 
technology and production all require increased specialization. 
Thus we can expect increased specialization and subsequent growth 
in the communication and goods exchange required to support it. 
Thus the need for a functional city will continue. X-Jhat then is 
the future spatial city? 

Many geographers have traced the evolution of cities and not- 
ed how transport technology has been a key determinant of their 
growth patterns. By comparing the densities of older downtox-m 
neighborhoods x-jith today's low density suburbs, it becomes appar- 
ent that improvements in transport per se have not caused disper- 
sion directly - rather they have reduced the relative inportance 
of transport costs as a locational constraint. Other factors, such 
as the desire for suburban living, have therefore gained dominance 
and caused decentralization. 

Similarly, communications innovations may loosen the bonds 
that still tie some activities to the center cities, and previous- 
ly repressed locational desires may gain prominence and dictate 
nevr patterns. In particular the office activity is a prime candi- 
date for decentralization. Offices are bound together because they 

12. CPL Exchange bibliography #28$ 

are conunLinication-intensive activities. There is laich need for 
rapid, face-to-face contact between a >7ide variety of office work- 
ers. Office firms, especially sr.all ones, also rely heavily on 
the "external econonles" of e^ert consiiltants, e.g. lawyers, 
accountants, and printers. Vhat about other types of urban en- 

Manufacturing and wholesaling are much less dependent on eam- 
munication. They depend heavily on transport facilities but in- 
creasingly the best transport service utilizes trucks and freeways 
rather than railroads and waterways. Thus, vdth the nearly ubiq-ji- 
tous availability of good road transport facilities, trar^ort per 
se has become less constraining and other location factors, nota- 
bly space for expansion and cheap land, have gained dceiLnance. 
The result has been significant long-term decentralization of nanu- 
facturing and warehousing. Retail sales were once concentrated 
downtovm but for sometime their grovrth has largely' gene to the sub- 
urbs in pursuit of the customers. 

In summary, the future of the central business district will 
depend largely on its ability to hold and attract new office er.- 
ployment, an ability vrhich is being eroded on several fronts. In 
the first instance central cities have detractions. Recent artic- 
les have mentioned the scarcity of honest, industrious labor, the 
high rents, air pollution and noise. 2rployees fear crime in the 
streets and grow tired of long commutes. Traffic congestion grows 
worse because inner city residents naturally rebel against nev 
freeways dividing their neighborhoods, and such facilities are 
enormously expensive. 

13. CPL Exchange Bibliography //285 
The result is that offices have been moving from the CBD to 
suburban areas in increasing numbers. It has been reported that 
three-quarters of the top 2C0 firms in Manhattan are considering 
moving out. Often when a firm cannot move entirely and still main- 
tain vital contacts, it vdll decentralize its routine functions. 
Those functions with little need for face-to-face contact, notably 
accounting, bookkeeping, and data processing, are moved to the sub- 
urbs leaving only the top executives and their personal staffs 
downtown. ..,..•. 

With the xd.despread availability of closed circuit television 
and rapid fascimile, it may be possible to conduct most meetings 
electronically. Therefore, it seems intuitively clear that advanc- 
es in communications viill facilitate such decentralization, both 
for entire organizations and functional units. An exception could 
be the delicate negotiations between top executives which may defy 
substitution. Even if their contacts could be substituted, these 
persons may have other reasons for remaining doxmtown. Until a 
persuasive argument is made to the contrary, the prudent forecast- 
er should assume that top executives will remain downtown even 
though professionals, clerks and operating departments may decen- 
tralize. The timing of possible decentralization is dependent on 
the fact that sophisticated telecom systems will not be available 
for some time nor can the office tenants break their leases and 
abandon the CBD overnight. The overall hypothesis is that the 
rate of downtown office grovrbh will continue to decline gradually 
over the next 10 to 20 years as communications advances become more 

lU. CPL Exchange Htliography #285 

readily available. Eventually, the absolute level of CBD et^lay- 
ment may fall; this trend vrould be reflected by increased vacancy 
rates in the older, less desirable bijildings. 

These predictions contradict the official forecasts in sore 
cities for extensive CBD office growth and are significant because 
transport decisions are often nade on the basis of this expected 
grov;th. Failure to achieve that grovrth vould resiilt in under- 
utilization and huge operating deflcites for conventional public 

The planner's problem is to test the above hj-pctheses in scoe 
rigorous manner in order to avoid making major errors in transport 
and other public facility investment decisions and in order to 
guide development into socially desirable configurations. 

The purpose of this document so far has been to suggest vhy 
investigation of the potential for substituting ccritiuni cations for 
transportation should be important to urban planners, and to dis- 
cuss some preliminary hypotheses. The follovlng sections will 
outline some of the major research questions, and present a working 
bibliography of some relevant literature. The bibliography itself 
is organized into a number of subject categories. In the paragraphs 
belov; the major research question will be raised and keyed to these 

15. CPL Exchange Bibliography #285 
1. The City 

uTiat forces determine the spatial distribution of activities 
in the urban area? Ihat are the current distributions of em- 
ployment "by type and what have been the trends? 

The acadeirdc field most applicable here is urban geography 
and some typical authors are Hoover and Vernon (LU 118), 
Wingo (UF 9) and Rodvin (LT 52). The bibliographic categories 
are "location theory (LT)", "location-urban form (LU)", and 
"urban form (UF)". 

Previous work in urban geography has identified in a qua- 
litative sense many of the forces determining urban form. The 
locational determinants for manufacturing, warehousing, and 
retail sales activities have been the subject of predictive 
and normative quantitative models. These models have been 
developed in a sub-field called "location theory" which is 
shared by urban geographers, business administrators, and econ- 

Unlike population, good empirical data on employment dis- 
tribution has been hard to find. We really do not know where 
the jobs are vjith much accuracy nor do we have good breakdowns 
by occupation, income and so forth. Available labor statis- 
tics are often disaggregated from regional or state totals 
rather than aggregated up from the census tract level. For- 
tunately, place of work data has been gathered by the 1970 
Census of Population for the first time. 

16. CPL 2xchange Bibliography #265 

2. Office ZrTplo:/r^nt end Location 

llnat is the amount and location of office esflajustit by occu- 
pation, income, etc? Vhat are the determnants of office 
location? Can future office location be predicted? 

;.3 above, office employment data has been difficult to 
obtain but the 1570 census should help imnensely. Bibliogr^- 
hic categories are "erployTnent, office (ZO)", and "land use 

Office location theory is almost unexplored territory. 
I'ost work in this field has been descriptive and analysis has 
been generally limited to the identification of locational cri- 
teria. No quantitative models have been developed to the 
author's knowledge, although the CoEJnunications Study Grocp of 
the JUPR in London is vorking on the problem. References in- 
clude Fye (LT U8) and Goddard (LC 15 and LC 16). 

3. Office Contact Patterns 

What are the communication and face-to-face contact require- 
ments of office activities and personnel? 

jilthough the ir5)ortance of face-to-face contact as a 
factor binding office activities to the CBD has often been 
mentioned, there have been surprisingly fev espirical studies 
of these contacts. Some exceptions are: Goddard {LC 17), 
Tornquist (LC 28), Warneryd (LC 30), Thorngren (LC 27) and 
Reid (LC 2l4). The bibliographic category for contact studies 
is "location, contacts (LC)" acd "comuni cations, business 

17. CPL Exchange Bibliography #285 
Most of the eirpirical work has consisted of having every 
eiriployee in a given organization record all his trips in a 
"contact diary". In addition the length, destination, purpose 
and other details are recorded for a small sairiple of all con- 
tacts. With this data it is possible to quantitatively des- 
cribe the organizations contact requirements and speculate 
about the types and capacity of telecommunications substitu- 
tes. Ultimately this type of data should allovj for the design 
of telecommunications substitutes in the same way Origin- 
Destination Surveys provide an empirical base for making fore- 
casts of future travel demands. 

I4. Telecommunications Systems 

liTiat are the various telecommunications terminals and networks 
that would be required to support ididespread substitution? 
How could these evolve from existing systems such as the tele- 
phone systems, data networks and cable TV? What are the key 
technological advances needed for lower costs and better per- 
formance? What cost and performance levels seem possible in 
the next 20 years? 

Relevant bibliographic categories are: "communication 
hardware (CH)" and "coirmunication netxirorks (GIJ)." 

The above questions have not been systematically consid- 
ered from the viewpoint of assessing substitution possibilities. 
However, there are numerous terminal devices and transmission 
systems in operation and in various stages of development about 
vjhich data is available. A recent book by Martin provides an 

18. CPL Exchange Eiblicgraphy #265 

excellent, serd-technical overview of these technologies (C 12), 

The report on the use of electronic transndssion devices by 

the U.S. Postal Service by General Dynardcs also pro'/i.dez nuch 

useful data on facsimile devices and transicission networics 

(CH 66). 

The three basic services that teleconfeiencing terminals 
may provide are real time audio, facsimile, and real tine or 
low frame rate video. These basic services include nany vari- 
ations such as high fidelity sound or large screen T!. The 
fundamental engineering problem is to design a teleconference 
facility that is convenient and natural to use vithin the 
constraints of technological feasibility ar^ reasonable cost. 
The multilocation video conference is a decided challenge in 
this respect. 

Network technologies include telephone lines, modified 
telephone lines (as used for Picturephone), coaxial cables, 
millimeter wave guides, microwaves, fibre optics, non-coherent 
light beams and laser beams. In addition to the technology 
there is the question of ovnership. Till the future telecon- 
ference system grow out of the Bell Telephone system, the data 
networks like DATRAI^, or from cable TV? 

5. ^ffoctivonoss of Communications Substitutes for raco-tc-Fgee 

How effective are various types of teleccrimini cations systems 

as substitutes for face-to-face contacts in terns of accurate 

and efficient transfer of information, emotions, iryressions, 


19. CPL Exchange Bibliography #285 
Bibliographic categories are: "coranunication, psycholog- 
ical aspects (CP)" and "communications, substitution (CS)". 

This area is almost totally unexplored vith the notable 
exception of Reid's Communication Study Group at the Joint 
Unit for Planning Research in London (CP 11^2, CS 186, l87, 
188, 189, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, and 212). Bell Telephone 
Laboratories in Holmdale, Hew Jersey has also done extensive 
hardware development work on both Picturephone and closed 
circuit T.V. teleconferencing. Unfortunately, little of this 
information has been published (CP 138). A search of the 
literature in psychology reveals some material on the value of 
non-verbal communication but nothing where media are compared 
for effectiveness. E^qperiences educational television 
may also be helpfiilj see for example CP lii3. 

Pi.esearch in this area has consisted largely of laboratory 
experiments where subjects are asked to discuss, negotiate and 
solve problems using different modes of communication such as 
face-to-face, telephone, and closed circuit T.V. Iledia effects 
are isolated and refined in subsequent experiments. The Com- 
munications Study Group is also conducting several field trails 
of different teleconference systems, 

6. Personal Attitudes Tov;ard Travel 

VJhat are the personal reasons for desiring or not desiring 
travel as perceived by various persons in various situations? 
How influential might these factors be when an individual 
chooses between teleconferencing and travel? 

20. CPL ::xchsnge Eiblicgraphy #285 

It has been suggested that travel is often dedrccle for 
a change in pace, time to relax, opportunity for sightseeir^, 
and expense accoxint living. On the other hand travel is often 
tiresome, scenery repetitious , and it separates the business- 
man from his family. Before vre can estimate the prctability of 
substitution, these personal factors night be assessed. 

The author has not yet searched for previc\is research on 
this topic, therefore no materials are included in the biblio- 
graphy, .'ji anonymous questionnaire survey of travelers Ki^t 
be an appropriate research approach. 

7. Benefits and Costs of oubstitution 

lihat are the economic and non-econoric tradeoffs betveen tele- 
conferencing and travel as seen by the erploying orgardzaticn? 

Bibliographic refei*ences are fo'ond under "ccmunication, 
substitution (CS)", and "cormini cation networks (CN)". 

liost organizations vrill ultimately adept a policy tabard 
the uJse of teleconferencing and travel. Pres\inably this policy 
^dill be based on a corparison of the various benefits and costs 
of both modes. Perhaps the best way to estimate future substi- 
tution and relocation vrould be to postulate it as an alternative 
course of action for a number of typical organizations, evalu- 
ate the alternatives, and estimate the likely decision. 

Hard data on the benefits and costs of futuire substitution 
are of course impossible to obtain, ^ieither the hardware re- 
quirements nor the hardware costs are known. ?}evertheless, 

21. GPL 3xchange Bibliography #28^ 
technological forecasts can be attempted of probable future 
user costs for various audio, facsimile and video services. 
These can be compared vjitii travel costs and value-of-time esti- 
mates. Mscellaneous cost data can be discovered in the com- 
munications technology literature but the author is aware of 
only two actual cost comparisons (CS 199, 200 and CS 210) . 

8. Probability of Office Decentralization 

Does it seem likely that office activities TdJ.1 choose to sub- 
stitute telecom for intra-CBD business travel and move to sub- 
urban locations? If offices relocate they will decrease the 
need for supporting activities such as lunch counters in the 
CBD| can the net change in total CBD employment be estimated 
if "X" office workers decentralize? Relevant material is 
found under: "location theory (LT)", "communications substi- 
tution (CS)", "transport and urban form (TU)", and "employment 
multiplier (SM)". 

In response to the new telecommunications services the 
typical CBD office has several options: 

1) Does not use telecom substitutes and remains in pre- 
sent CBD location. 

2) Uses telecom substitutes but remains in present CBD 

3) Does not use telecom but moves to a non-CBD location. 

h) Uses telecom substitutes and moves to non-CBD loca- 

5) Uses some telecom substitutes and decentralizes some 
functions or departments. 

22. CPL Exchange Bibliographar #28$ 

One approach for analyzing these possitillti^s is to con- 
struct scgnarios of each option for a given firr.. 7:.;.-. i 
benefit/cost coirparison of each scenario would be made and the 
firm's probable response estimated. Three problems with this 
approach are: 1) actual managerial location decisions may 
bear little relation to vihat the benefit/cost anal/sis indica- 
tes is best; 2) most needed data is uncvailablej 3) each fim 
may be so vinique that results can not be generalized. 

In spite of these pitfalls this systematic approach should 
be educational, help to identify data needs, axid perhaps give 
some useful res\ilts if the options have overvhelminglj' large 
benefit/cost differences that would cancel data errors. 

The benefit/cost approach is being used by the British 
Government in a large operations research project which would 
guide the relocation of some government offices frcr. over- 
crovrded London. Little has been published about this "Loca- 
tion of Government" project (SR 21) . 

A second approach might be to develop an office location 
model based on historic location behavior and which was sensi- 
tive to contact costs. If the iirportanee of contact costs in 
previous location decisions could be quantified then perhaps 
future costs (not sinply economic costs but including also 
measures of communications effectiveness) for advanced tele- 
conference systems could be estimated and their influence on 
location forecast. This approach is similar to the ncdal 
split model used by transportation planners in that it would 

23. CPL Exchange Bibliography ?;'285 
employ correlations based on observation of past behavior 
rather than a true understanding of all reasons for that be- 
havior. Just as conventional modal split models probably vill 
not be valid for truly innovative transport systems, so also 
might this approach fail for advanced communications systems. 

9. Job Decentralization and Travel Demand 

Vihat effect would job decentralization have on urban transpor- 
tation demands? Would the need for new freevTays or rapid 
transit be altered? ¥hat types of transportation systems 
would be most appropriate for a decentralized city? 

Bibliographic categories are: "transport evaluation {T2)" , 
"transport models (TM)", "transport and urban form (TU)", 
"transport and journey-to-work (TIJ)", and to a lesser extent: 
"errployment relocation (ER)", and "urban form (UF)". 

Work has been done on decentralization and the journey- 
to-work by Peter Daniels at the University of Liverpool and by 
the Location of Offices Bureau in London. (TO 37, TW h3, and 
ER 18 and 29). 

In addition, many urban areas have conducted transporta- 
tion studies in which alternate land use patterns were evalu- 
ated. These may have some useful data although detailed study 
would be needed to determine whether the models accurately 
show the relation between land use changes and network demand 
changes. The use of a "gravity distribution" instead of one 
based primarily on "intervening opportunities" is questionable. 

2U. CPL Exchange Bibliography ^BS 
A sensitive "capacity restraint" progrsn is also needed to de- 
tect v/hen new facilities are needed, but capacity restraint 
techniques are generally coarse. 

From the lindted data now available, sorae of which is 
based on questionable assumption or model techniques, it ap- 
pears this problem has not been solved. \.e don't quantitative- 
ly understand the relation between urban decentralization ard 
travel demands in terms of pattern, mode and trip length. 

One obvious approach is to postulate a dispersed job pat- 
tern for some city, rerun the network r.odels and observe the 
forecast demands. This should be done only after modifj'ing 
the distribution, capacity restraint and other programs as 

A second approach is to look at the changes in the travel 
habit of workers whose firms have actually left the CED. The 
English studies have done this. They show that the percent 
using transit drops for decentralized workers, trip length nay 
increase slightly or decrease considerably depending on whether 
the firm moves to the suburbs or to a distant snail town and 
trip patterns obviously change from radially oriented to dis- 

The inplications of dispersion ai^ that either the auto- 
mobile, bus or a low line cspacity, diverse network systen 
like Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) would be most appropriate. 

25. CPL Exchange Bibliography #285 
10. Social Benefits and Costs of Decentralization 

I'Jhat would be the overall benefits and costs to society of a 
more dispersed urban form supported by telecommunications as 
opposed to the somewhat more concentrated one likely without 
telecommunications substitution? Based on the above, what 
are the appropriate policies for concerned government agencies 
such as the Departments of Transportation, Housing and Urban 
Development, and Commerce (FCC)? 

Bibliographic categories "commiinication revolution (CR)", 
"transportation evaluation (2T)", and "urban planning (UP)", 
may contain some relevant materials although the author is 
not aware of any significant work focused on these questions. 
With major decisions being made daily on freeways and rapid 
transit, policy research on decentralization and telecommuni- 
cations is both timely and necessary. 

One primary benefit of job decentralization (to small 
office parks or suburban centers) is that workers could re- 
side closer to their jobs. Other benefits would be to avoid 
the cost and neighborhood disruption of building additional 
transport facilities serving the CBD, and to decrease nation- 
al consuirption of a limited resource namely, gasoline. 

On the debit side, decentralization may not automatically 
induce shorter work trips. Much depends on where the jobs go 
and whether or not workers move their homes. Carried too far, 
decentralization could lower CBD property values, tax receipts 
and the economic viability of existing transit systems. 

26. CFL Exchange BLhllograftj #285 

The above list of benefits and costs treat only a srall 
aspect of the coirmunications revolution. Yet their dinen- 
sions are staggering since the United states presently spends 
about twenty percent of its gross national prod'oct on trar.s- 
portation and 236 ndllion people are expected to live in o\ir 
urban areas by the year 2000. Our major planning deficiency 
lies in not understanding the ccrmunications revolution nor 
in how to direct it for the naxLinuin good. A ccrprehensive 
technology assessment is clearly needed. 

27. CPL Exchange Bibliography #285 

PiLRT II :; 


1. Entries appear only once although they may include material 
vjhich relates to more than one "Bibliographic Category". 

2. Abbreviations used in the enteries are: 

NTIS - National Technical Information Service j U.S. Department 
of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 221^1 . 

JUPR - Joint Unit for Planning Research, University College 

London/London School of Economics, 172 Tottingham Court 
Road, London. I'lP. 

CSG - Communications Study Group. A group -within the JUPR 
under the direction of Alex Reid. 

28. CPL Exchange BitHogrspiiy #285 


C - C onTTuni c ati ons , general and rise. 

CA - ;.ppli cations , £:d.3ting 

C/J- /.pplications . Futuristic 

CB - C orjraini c ati one , Business 

CH - Hardware, innovative terrdnal devices 

ClI - ilotv'orks and Tr&nsnission 3yster.3 

CP - Psychological ,.spects of Substitution 

CR - Ccrjnuni cation ^.evolution , broad social irplicationa 

CS - Substitution of Telecon for Travel 

S - SiTiglo^Tient, general and ndsc, 

ETl - ^■aiployment Kultiplier , ratio of office ;rcrkers to 

supporting services 
EO - Offices 
3R - Smployment Relocation ^ dispersal 

L - Location of Urban ;ctivities , general and rise. 

LC - Contact Patterns , business travel 
LT - Location Theory , predictive and normative 
LU - Location and Urban Fom , erperical survey data, and 


T - Transportation , general and ndsc. 

T3 - Svaluation (benefit and cost) and Policy 

Tl'I - liodels £nd Planning Techniques 

TS - Studies , for actual cities 

TU - Transport and Urban Fon-i , interaction of 

TV - Journey to Vork 

U - Urban , general and misc. 

UF - Urban Form , theories and descriptions 

UIJ - New ToAms 

UP - Urban Planning , theory and techniques 

29. CPL Exchange Bibliography #28^ 

1 Abler, Ronald. Geographical Futuristics; A Case Study . A 

keynote address for session on "The Future of Geography in 
Teaching and Research" at 21st /jinual heeting of Canadian 
Association of Geographies, Waterloo, Ontario, June 1, 1971, 

22 p. mimeo. 

2 Colston Research Society Syinposiuin 21st, held March 2li-28, 

1969. University of Bristol, Coiimuni cation and anergy in 
Changing Urban Environments , Colston Papers^21, Colston 
Research' Society (Snclc-nd), CCVjones, C1970, Archon, 1971, 

23 p^, (ASTIC 1068Uli). • 

3 Committee on Public Sngineering Policy, National Academy of 

Engineering, A Study of Technology Assessment , U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., July 1969. 

k "Communications." Time , September 6, 1968, p. 85. 

$ CovTan, Peter. "Communications," Urban Studies , Vol. 6, No. 3, 

6 CSG, The use of telecommunications in a relocation study , CSG, 

JUPR, London. Contains: 

a) C/70317/PY Eff'^ct' of substitution en soimunicaticns 

damage . 

b) W/7032U/RD Measure of communications damage. 

c) W/7033Ui^D Report of December 7th meeting. 

d) C/7IO36/PY Effect of substitution and measure of 

commiinications damage. 

7 Deutsch, Karl VJ. "On Social Communications and the Metro- 

polis," Communication and Culture , Hult, Rinehart & 
Winston, New York, 1966. 

8 Ferkiss, Victor C. Technological Man: The Myth and the 

Reality , Mentor^ New York, 1970. 

9 Hmelar, Stephen!. "The Information Age," Eascon '70 Record 

of Electronics and Aerospace Systems Convention, Washington, 
D.C., October 26-28, 1970. IEEE Publication 70 C I6-AES, 
pp. 193-198. . . •.• . 

10 Institute for Communication Research, .Stanford University, 

Educational Television, The Next Ten Years , Stanford, 
California, 1962. 

. *<-. . ' . ..- ■ 

11 Kahn, Herman and Anthony J. l.einer. Th e Year 2000— A Frame - 

work for Speculations , The Hudson Institute, New York, 

30. CPL Zzchci^e Bibliography #285 

12 Martin, James. Futui-e Developnents in Telecccrainications , 

Prentice -Hall, Znglewood Cliffs, liev Jersey, 1>71. 

13 Meier, Richard L. 'The Hetrcpolis as a Transaction y^axLrlzir-r; 

System,'' Daedelus , Fall 1968. 

Ill Metropolitan Fund, Inc. Regional Urban Comunicaticns , 
Detroit, l^chigan, March 197C. 

15 Schramm, V/ilbur. "Information Theory and Mass CcKTrvirdcation," 

Communications and Culture , /. .G. Smith, ed.. Holt, Riri»- 
hart & V/inston, New York, 1566. 

16 "The TV Netv;orks Shrug off Hew Corpetition." Business Veek , 

March 27, 1971. 

17 V/eaver, V/arren. "The Mathematics of Communication,'' Cornun - 

ication and Culture , A.G. 3rlth,ed, Holt, Rinehart '- 
V.lnston, New York, New York, 1966. 

18 Ueisman, Herman. "Spectrum of Communications," Prcceedincs 

of the 1965 Institute in Technical and Ind'astrial Ccnrr^'l - 
cations , Institute in Technical and Industrial Corrr^nica- 
tions, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 

19 Weisman, Herman. "Exhibit B, Current Sources of R & D in the 

Hardware and Software of Communications,'' Proceedings of 
the 1965 Institute in Technical and Industrial - 
tions. Institute in Technical and Industrial CoBWunica- 
tions, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 


20 "Command Performance Network.'' (Ercchure (CED-23A) describing 

General Electric 's cross countrj', wide screen, closed 
circuit TV system.) General Zlectric Co., Syracuse, Hew 

21 Confravision, (promotional brochure), Teleccmunications 

Department, British Post Office, London. 

22 Granger, S.H. "Pilot Scheme for a K\ilti -Purpose Local Ket- 

work," Post Office (British) Teleccrr.unicaticn? /ournp.1 . 
Vol. 20, y.utumn IT^B, rP- 16-19. 

23 Granger, S.H. Post Office V'ideband Distribution Network at 

V.'asliington Nov: Tc^nTi , line and Radio Branch, T dec c-nrora ca- 
tions Development Department, Teleconmunications Headquar- 
ters, British Post Office. 

31. CPL Exchange Bibliography i!^2%$ 

Ik Mandelbaum, S. Description of COIiI'TIilT, a New ConiTOuni cations 
System for North Central Philadelphia ^ Center for Urban 
Research and S:q)eidment, University of Pennsylvania, 1.So9 , 

2$ Perraton, H.D., D.A.L. Wade and J.W.R. Fox. Linking Univer- 
sities by Technology , a report prepared for the I.orking 
Party on Inter-University Communication by the Inter- 
University Research Unit, National Extension College, 
Cambridge, England, 1969. 

26 Sistrunk, F. "Review of Teleconferencing Applications in Use 

in the United States, Working Paper n'5 . Human Sciences 
Research Inc., McLean, Virginia, September 1963. 

27 Telediagnosis: A New Msj to Deliver Medical Care , (brochure) 

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. 


28 Ayers, S.W. Possibilities for Integrated Customer Telecommuni - 

cation Services in A.D. 1990 . Engineering Department, 
British Post Office Research Station, London, 1969, unpub- 
lished mimeo. 

29 British Post Office, Long Range Planning Division. Telecom - 

munications; Opportunities and Constraints, Annex A , 
1969^ 33 p. mimeo. ~ 

30 Fano, R.M. "The Computer Utility and the Community," 1967 

IEEE International Convention Record, Part 12. (Based on 
MIT's research for Project liAC) pp. 30-37. 

31 Foundation 70. The Third Wire; Cable Comraunications Enters 

the City , Foundation 70, Neirton, Massachusetts, March 1971. 

32 Livesey, Roger. "Communications 50 years from now," Engineer - 

ing , October 2k, 1969, pp. kih-S- 

33 Philadelphia City Planning Commission. Telecommunications 

Needs for Municipal Functions for Philadelphia , "Part I - 
Free Library" and "Part II - Department of Public Health," 
Philadelphia, October and November, 1970. 

3U Singer, /irthur L., Jr. Issues for Study in Cable Communica - 
tions , Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, New York City, September 

3p Smith, Ralph L. "The Wired Nation," The Nation , May 18, 1970, 
pp. 582-606. 

32. CPL Sxchaxige Eibliograiijy #285 

36 "The Room-Size World." Tine , Y.a-j lu, 15^5, p. 5U. 

37 "The Secretarial Coitworker." Pusiness Zyster- , ieptenber 1571. 

38 V/hyte, J.S. T el econnuni cations---.: hat of tho fut'-je? Prepared 

for Symposium on Telecomurdcaticns in the lS5C's. 

British Post Office, Teleccmmuni cations Headquarters, rineo. 


3^ Donnen, S.S. "Relations Analysis of Organizations: Z:q3lorir.g 
the Organizational Matrix," Philips Crgamzational Pvesearch 
Group, Philips Co., iletherlandc, 15 p. urputlished slaeo. 

UO Copeman, G. et al . Hovr the Executive Spends his Day , London 
Business Publications, London, 15o3. 

m Collins, Hugh. Organizational ComurJ. cations , CSG, JLTH, 
London, 1971. 

U2 Ference, Thomas P. "Organizational Communications Systems 
and the Decision Process," lianagement Science , Vol. 17, 
No. 2, October 1970, pp. B 83-96. 

U3 Geneen, H. "The Human Element in Comunication," KanagWBent 
Review , IX (2), \;inter 1966, pp. 3-8. 

kh Harris, J.R. and R.D. .Williams. "Video Service for Business," 
Bell Lab RlilCORD . May/June, 196$. 

U5 Hessling, P. "Analyzing Industrial Organizations in Cross 

Cultural Settings: A Case Study of a Ihiltinational Corp>- 
oration, " Philips Organizational Research Grovp, Philips 
Co., Netherlands. 

[16 Jacobson, :£. and S.iH. Seashore. "Conmunicaticn Practices in 
Complex Organizations," Journal of Social IsjT^es , Vol. 7, 
No. 3, 1951, pp. 28-UO. 

Il7 Klein, Frederick C. "Business lleetings: 1 ho Likes Then and 
IVho Doesn't," Management Re view , July 1967, pp. 65-72. 

U8 Lindl, A.V\ "Plain Talk About Communicating in Business," 
Pusincss iionagement , April 196U. 

U9 "Municipal Television Service," (Promotional Brochure). 

Metropolitan Regional Council, New lork, Nev York, 1570. 

$Q Overhage, Carl F.J. and R. Joyce Haman. "The On-Line Intel- 
lectual Community and the Informatics Transfer System at 
H.I.T. in 197$," Intrex , H.I.T. Press, Cantrid^, Massach- 
usetts, 1965, pp. ^5-51. 

33. CPL Exchange Bibliography if285 

^1 Pettit, Joseph M. and Donald J. Grace. "The Stanford Instruc- 
tional Television," IKJIE Spectrum , May 1970, pp. 73-80. 

52 Stryker, Perrin. "The Subtleties of Delegation," Fortune , 
March 19$$, pp. 9$+. 

$3 Thayer, Lee. Communication and Coiranuni cation Systems in Or - 
ganization, Management, and Interpersonal Relations , R.D, 
IrTrdn, Inc., Homewood, Illinois, 1968. 

$k Uddenberg, R.C. "Boeing-Tie Management Techniques," Boeing 
Document D2 -117099-1, Boeing Company, Seattle, July 1969. 


55 Andrews, F.T., Jr. and H.Z. Hardaway. "Connecting the Custo- 

mer," Bell Lab RECORD , May/June, 1969. 

56 Andrews, H.G. and W.K. Pratt. "Television Bandid.dth Reduction 

by Encoding Spatial Frequencies," Journal of the Society 
of Motion Pictiire and Television Engineers , Vol. 77, No. 
> 12, December 1968, pp. 1279-1286. 

57 Atwood, John ¥. "CATV in the 70' s: A Challenge for Informa- 

tion Display," Information Display , May/June, 1971. 

58 Beltrami, ^lurelio and Virgilio Mosca. "High-Speed Visual 

Communication over Existing Telephone Networks," IEEE 
Transactions on Communication Technology , Vol. COM -17, 
Mo. 3, June 1969, pp. 395-li03. 

59 Cherry, Colin et al . "An E:!q3erimental Study of the Possible 

Bandwidth Compression of Visual Image Signals," Proceed - 
ings I.S.E.E. , Vol. 5l, No. 11, November 1963. 

60 Comanor, William S. and Bridger M. Jlitchell. "Cable televis- 

ion and the impact of regulation," Bell Jovirnal of Econo - 
mics and Science , Spring 1971, pp. 15U-210. 

61 Davis, C.G. "Getting the Picture," Bell Lab RECORD. May/June, 


62 Dorr OS, Irwin. "Picturephone," Bell Lab RECORD , Vol. hi, No. 

5, May/June, 1969. 

63 Ekstrand, S.O. "Devices - The Hardv;are of Progress," Bell 

Lab RECORD , May/June, 1969. 

6k "The Evolution of Picturephone Service," Bell Lab RECORD , 
May/June, 1969. 

3U. CPL Exchange Elbllogrsphy #285 

65 Frank, Ronald A. "Bell TV Displays 36O Data/' Cory-uter^rrld , 

Vol. V, Ho. lU, April 1, 1571. 

66 General DynanLcs, Study of :j.ectronic HarHUng of Kail, Com - 

pletion ReportG , prepared for the 'J. 3. Post Cffico. 196S. 
Available from NTIS in 8 volumes: 

/iD 715 117 Potentially .-.pplicable Zc-lpnent 

AD 715 118 Collecticn ar.d Listributicn 

AD 715 115 Conversion 

i\D 715 120 Cv-itcr-in^ 

AD 715 121 Tran3rl3Licn Kethods 

/D 715 122 Zxperimental Laboratory ZQuip?qent 

AD 715 123 Laboratory Design 

aD 715 12U Value/Sancity 

67 Gillette, Dean. "Communications in the Seventies," Bell Lab- 
oratories, hhirray Hill, Hew Jersey, 1967. 

66 Gordon, 3.1. "A 'Solid-State' Election Tube for the Picture- 
phone Set," Bell Laboratories RZCCRD, Jxone 1567. 

65 Gouriet, G.G. "BandidLdth Corpression of a Television Signal,'' 
Proceedings I.E.S. , Vol. 103, Part B, No. 15, Hay 1557. 

70 Hardeman, Lyman J. "Vj'hen V/ill Picturephone Break Out?" 

Electronics, November 8, 1571, pp. 57-98, 

71 Hult, J.L. "Satellites and Technology for Communications: 

Shaping the Future," P-3760, RAND Corporation, Santa Honica, 
California, 1968. 

72 "Illinois Bell Installs Internal Picturephones . '' Ccnrurdcaticns 

News , May 1971, p. 6. 

73 Innovations in Commvinications Conference (report) April 5 and 

10, 1970. American Society for Infomance Science, OTIS, 
July 1970, PB-192 29U. 

7U "An Integrated System Design for the Coding of Visual >:es sa- 
ges," Research Laboratory Report No. 3L^^ , Engineering 
Division, Postmastor-General's Departr.cnt Corrxjni'realth of 
Australia, Melbourne, 20 p. mimeo. 

75 Kern, Edward. "A Good Revolution Goes on Sale," LIFZ , October 

16, 1970, 

76 Klommer, E,T. "Key Engineering Problems in Communications," 

presented at the I968 Convention of the /jnerican Fsj-chclo- 
gical Association, San Francisco, Pell Telephone Labora- 
tory, Holmdale, New Jersey. 

35. CPL Exchange Bibliography {^2%$ 

77 Korn, F.A. and A.E. Ritchie. "Choosing the Route,'' Bell Lab 

RECORD , Hay/June, 1969. 

78 LaVoie, Francis J. "Voice-Actuated Controls," Machine Design , 

January 22, 1970, pp. 135-139. 

79 Lechner, B.J. "Ferroelectric Electroluminescent Displays," 

RCA Laboratories (unpublished report), Princeton, New 
Jersey, 1967. 

80 Lechner, B.J. "Preliminary Development of a Solid-State 

Matrix Display," Technical Report AFFDL-TR-66-5 , RCA Labor- 
atories, Princeton, Neu Jersey, January, 1967. 

81 Lechner, B.J, "Liquid Crystal Displays," Paper Presented at 

the Second National Conference on Pertinent Concepts in 
Computer Graphics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illi- 
nois, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, New Jersey, March 1969. 

82 Licld-ider, J.C.R. and R.V. Taylor. "The Computer as a Communi- 

cation Device," Science and Technology , ±ipril 1968, pp. 

83 Mounts, F.IJ. "Conditional Replenishment: A Promising Techni- 

que for Video Transmission," Bell Lab RECORD , i.pril 1970, 
pp. 116-121. 

8U Murphy, John A. "Interactive CRT Terminals, Part I~Full 

Graphic CRT Terminals and Systems," Modern Data , June 1971. 
pp. Uh-S^. 

85 Nast, D.W. and I. VJelber. "Transmission Across Town or Across 

the Country," Bell Lab RECORD . May/June, 1969. 

86 (Picturephone in 'Pittsburgh). Electronics , July 6, 1970, 

p. UO. 

87 Pierce, John R. "Communication," Daedelus , Fall 1968. 

88 Pierce, J.R. "Communication and Computers," Bell Laborator- 

ies, Murray Hill, Mew Jersey, June 1967. 

89 Pierce, J.R. "The Future Technology of Communication," Bell 

Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, May 1970. 

90 Proceedings of the Cojiveience on Image Storage and Transmission 

Systems for Libraries , National Bureau of Standards, NTIS, 
September 1970, PB-193 692. 

91 Radio Corporation of America. A Television Fascimile System , 

Report on "Homefax" prepared for WIEC-TV by RCA Labora- 
tories, Princeton, New Jersey, January 1968, 13 p. mimeo. 

36. CPL Exchange Bitliographj #285 

5*2 "RCA GlobcOTi Demonstrates new International Video Voice S/sten: 
Penrrdts Businessmen to Exchange T7 Pictures as They Talk,'' 
RCA ilews , June 10, 1571. 

93 Robinson, A.H. and C. Cherry. 'ResuiLts of a Prototype Televis- 
ion Bandvd-dth Conprossion ScheKo", Process din^; 
Vol. 55, No. 3, J:arch 1^67, pp. 356-351; 

T r T ■? 

9U Rohlfs, J.H. and M. V;ish. Chicago Picturephone Study; Zraft 
of Questionnaire , Bell Telephone Co., J'oly 21, 1571, 
unpublished irdjneo. 

95 Spencer, A.E. '^laintenance - Keeping the System in Trim,'' 

Bell Lab RECORD, Kay/June, 1969. 

96 Stetten, Kenneth J. Interaction Television Zoftvare for Cable 

Television Application , The l-dTKZ Corp., KcLean, Virginia, 
June 1971. 

97 Sutherland, Ivan E. "Corputer Displays," Scientific /-.rerigan , 

June 1970, pp. 57-82. 

98 Teer, K. "Investigations into redundancy and possible band- 

VTidth conpression in television transmission," P^iUp'' 
Research Report l5 . Philips Co., >Jetherlands , I960, pp. 

99 Thompson, John F. Reduction of Perceptual Redundancy for Zats 

Compression of Television Signals , •anputlished doctoral 
thesis. Department of Electrical Engineering, Irperial 
College, University of London, ^.ay 1968. 

100 "Tomorrovf." Bell Lab RECORD. May/June, 1969. 

101 Volk, John. The Reston, Virginia, Test of the MTTRZ Corpora - 

tion Interactive Tcl'^viGJon 3yGter. , Th'' >ZT?j; Corp., Y.eLe&r., 
Virginia, Hay 1971. 

102 "\vhat Your Telephone Could Do in the Year 2,000." Bell S^-ster. 

NEWS and FEATURES. New York, March 1967. 

103 Wilson, Vv.F. (article ), RCA Electronics , Suraner 1971, 

pp. 21-23. 

COhJ-iUNICATia' t!ET\'/0HKS (CN) 

lOU Barnett, H.J. a:xi E. Greenburg. "Regulating CaTV Systens: 
An Analysis of FCC Policy and an Alternative Policy," 
Department of Economics, \.'ashington University, St. Louis, 
November 1969, 29 p. ndmeo. 

37. CPL Exchange Bibliography j'/285 

105 Campbell, John 0. and J. P. Gleason. "Design Parameters for 

Integrated Urban Communications," Journal of Society of 
- Motion Picture and Television Engineers , Vol. 79, June 
1970, pp. 532-535. 

106 "Dial a Program." (Brochure describing Redif fusion Cable 

T.V.), Rediffusion International Ltd., Dennis Port, Massa- 
chusetts, 15 p. 

107 Equity Research Associates. The Cable Television Industry , 

(investment report to subscribers). Published by Halle and 
Stieglity, Inc., IJew York City for Equity Research Associa- 
tes of New York City, October 19, 1971, U7 p. 

108 Gross, William E. "Distribution of Electronic Mail Over the 

Broad Band Party-Line Communications iJetwork," Proceedings 
of I.E.E.E ., Vol. 58, No. 7, July 1970, pp. 1002-1012. 

109 Gross, lailiam B. "Electronic Mail and Broadband Information 

via a Hybrid Communication Network." Sascon '70 Record of 
Electronics and Aerospace Systems Convention, Uadiington, 
D.C., October 26-28, 1970. I.E.E.E. Publication 70 C I6- 

iiss, pp. 21I4-217. 

110 Jurgen, Ronald K. "Two-way Applications for Cable Television 

Systems in the "703," I.E.E.E. Spectrum , November 1971, 
pp. 39-5U. 

111 MITRE Corp. Urban Cable Systems , MITRE Corp., McLean, 

Virginia, November 1971, 305 p. 

112 Sanders, R.W. "Local Distribution— The Key to Future Data 

Communication Networks," Eascon '70 Record of Electronics 
and Aerospace Systems Convention, Washington, D.C., Octo- 
ber 26-28, 1970. I.E.E.E. Publication 70 C 16-AE3, pp. 

113 Sloan Commission on Cable Communications. On the Cable; The 

Television of Abundance, McGra^^r-Hill, Neir York, 1971, 
256 pp. 

lilt Smith, S. Stratford. "The Emergence of CATV: A Look at the 
Evolution of a Revolution," Proceedings of the I.E.E.E. , 
Vol. 58, No. 7, July 1970, pp. 967-982. 

115 Stanford Research Institute. Business Opportunities in Cable 

Television , Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Cali- 
fornia (Proprietary report to paying clients), 3 volumes, 
March 1970, August 1971. 

116 Wtlker, P.M. and S.L. Mathsion. "Communications Carriers: 

Evaluation or Revolution?" Teclinology Review , 1971, pp. 

38. CPL Sxchange Bibliography j?285 


117 Allen, '.illiain H. 'Instructional Media Research: Past, 

Present and Future," A7 Ccrrrani cations ?£'/i.ev . Vol. IS', 
No. 1, Spring 1571, pp. 5-17. 

116 Anderson, James A. "Single-Channel and liulti-Charaiel Messa- 
ges: A Coirparison of Cognitive Meaning," AV CcrT?-Lni cations 
Review , Vol. 17, Ho. h, i.lnter 1969, pp. U2t-h}S - 

119 Birdshistall, R. "Kinesics and Conmuni cation," ^^ylorations 

in Copipiunications , an ^jithology, 1,. Carpenter and V.. ]k:Lu- 
han, eds., Beacon Press, I960. 

120 Carey, James U. "Harold Adams Innis and Karshall KcLuhan, " 

Antioch Review , Vol. XXVII, :io. 1, Spring 1967. 

121 Carey, James V/. and J.J. Quirk. "The llythos of the Zlectron- 

ic Revolution - I," The /.merlcan Scholar , Vol. 39, ^'o. 2, 
Spring 1970. 

122 Carey, James VJ. and J.J. '^juirk. "The Kj'thos of the HLlectron- 

ic Revolution - II," The Merican Scholar , Vol. 39, I.'o, 3, 
Summer 1970. 

123 Ghanpness, Brian. The Maier Pilot 3xperir.ent , CSG, JUPF, 


12U Champness, Brian. The Measurement and Prediction of Accept - 
ability , CSG, JUPR, London, 1?7C. 

125 Cherry, Colin, On Human Communication, A Review, A Survey . 

and A Criticism , 2nd ed., H.I.T. P:-^ss, Cantrid^e, Massa- 
chusetts, 1966. 

126 Forston, Robert F. and Charles V. Larson. 'The Dynardcs of 

Space: /n Experimental Study in Proxemic Behavior among 
Latin Americans and Hcrth ijnericans," TheJournal_2f_2£2- 
munication , Vol. 16, June 1968, pp. 1 09 -116. 

127 Hall, Edward T. The Hidden Dimension , Doubleday Anchor, 

Garden City, New York, 19<.^6. 

126 Hare, A. Paul and Robert F. Bales. "Seating Position and 
Small Group Interaction," iccion'?trv. Vol. 26, ]lo. U, 
1963, pp. U80-U86. ^ 

129 Hinrichs, John R. "Communications Activity of Industrial 
Research Personnel," Personi-iol Fgycholca' , Vol. 17, Ho. 
2, 196U, pp. 193-20U. 

39. CPL Exchange Bibliography l/2Q^ 

130 Jones, Robert VJ. "Pro-existing Attitudes of College Students 

to Instructional Television," ;.V Communications Review , 
Vol. 12, No. 3, Fall 196I;, pp. 325-336. 

131 Kendon, Adam. "Some Functions of Gaze — Direction in Social 

Interaction," Acta Psychologic a , 26, 196?, pp. 22-63. 

132 ICLemmer, E.T. and F.W, Snyder. lieasurement of Time Spent 

Communicating , Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey, 

1968, Unpublished manuscript, 

133 Leavitt, Harold J. "Some Effect of Certain Communication 

Patterns on Group Performance," Journal of Abnormal Psy- 
chology , Vol. U6, 1551, pp. 38-50. 

13h Lindsey and Aronson. The Handbook of Social Psychology , Vol. 

IV, 1969. 

135 McVey, G.F. "Television: Some Viewer—Display Considerations," 

AV Communications Review , Vol. 18, No. 3, Fall 1970. 

136 Meier, Richard L. "Communication Stresses in the Future Urban 

Environment," Working Paper Wo. 79 j Center for Planning and 
Development Research, Institute of Urban "c Regional Devel- 
opment, University of California, Berkeley, I968. 

137 Meier, Richard L. "Human Time Allocation: A Basis for 

Social Accounts," /jnerican Institute of Planners Journal , 
1959, pp. 27-33. 

138 iiitchell, D. "Better Video Conferences," Bell Laboratories 

RECORD, January 1970. 

139 Pearman, D. and H.A. Iddles. "Factors Affecting Satisfactory 

Sound Trjith Vision Conference Facilities," Paper to Fourth 
International Symposium on Human Factors in Telephony , 

II4O Perrin, Donald G. "A Theory of Multiple- -Image Communica- 
tion," AV Communication Review , Vol. 17, No. U, Winter 

1969, pp. 369-362. 

liA Pittenger, R.E. "A Basis for Some Contributions of Linguis- 
tics to Psychology," Communication and Culture , a.G. Smith, 
ed., Hult, Rinehart & Winston, Nexir York, 1966. 

II42 Reid, Alex. Comparisons between telephone and face-to-face 
conversation , CSG, Joint Unit for Planning Research, 
London, mimeo. 

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lli3 rtesearch in Instruction T3lqvl3ion and Film , SuHnary of Stud- 
iea. Corpiled by the Bureau of Research, Division of 
riesearch Training and Disssrination for the Office of Zd'a- 
cation, HHT,/, U.S. CJovemnent Printing Office, (FJ 5.23li: 
3U0la), 1567. 

Il4ii Rich, Owen 3., R.D. Poll and T.H. v:i 1 1 1 ans . The •Jtillzation 
of Large-Screen TV to Overcone Shortages of Zlacsroon 
Space and Teaching Personnel , produced for Office cf Edu- 
cation, HiV/ at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 1566. 

1U5 Scheflen, jJLbert 2. "The Significance of Posture in Cocmuni- 
cation Systems," Psychiatry , 156U, pp« 316-331. 

lUo Shapiro, Jeffrey G. "Responsivity to Facial and Linguistic 
CuQS," The Journal of Corrinunication , Vol. 18, March 1568, 
pp. 11-17. 

1U7 Shaw, Marvin E. "Coimiini cation Networks," ;.d7arices in jjcper - 
iinental Social Psychology , L. Berkovdtz, ed.. Vol. 2, 
Acadeirdc Press, New York, 156U. 

1U8 Short, John. Attitude Change , CSG, JUPR, London. 

1U5 Short, John. Bargaining and ".legotiaticn — an exploratory 
study , CSG, JUPR, London, 1571. 

150 Short, John. Cooperation and Coripetition in an Experinental 

Bargaining Game Conducted Over Two Kedia , CSG, JUPR, Lon- 
don, 1571. 

151 Sumby, V/.H. and I. Pollack. "Visual Contribution to Speech 

Intelligibility in Noise," Journal of the Acoustical 
Society of America . Vol. 26, Ho. 2, March 155U. 

152 Thompson, D.F. and L. Meltzer. ''Coraiiunication of ^inotional 

Intent by Facial Expression," Journal of ..bnc- _i 

Social Psychology , Vol. 68, No. 2, 156L, pp. 1_ , -, . 

153 Mlliams Frederick and John Tolch. "Connurd cation by Facial 

Expression," Journ?;! of Cor-runlcatior.^ , March 1965, pp. 


I5I4 Asimov, Isaac. "The Fourth Revolution: Toward a Global 
Village," Saturday' Hoview , October 2U, 1970. 

155 Bagdikian, Be. "How much more ccrarainication can ve stand?", 
The Futurist . October 1971, pp. I8O-I63. 

hX* CPL Exchange Bibliography //285 

156 Broxm, George H. "Television's Role in Tomorrovj's Ivorld," 

lEE Spectrm , October 196? . 

157 Busignies, Henri. Trends and Future of Telecomriunications , 

paper to the First 3TC (Standard Telephones and Cables 
Liniited) Communication Lecture, 1971. 

158 Collin, Cherry. "The communication revolution," "Living 

■with telecommunications," (Tvto 20-ndnute talks given on 
the BBC 3rd Program) Electrical Engineering Department, 
Imperial College, London, September 1969, mimeo. 

159 d'Arcy, Jean. "Challenge to Cooperation: Toward a Global 

Village," Saturday Review , October 2k, 1970. 

160 de Sola Pool, Inthiel. (Section on the effect of the communi- 

cations revolution on social trends). Science and Techno - 
logy . April 1968, pp. 87-101. 

161 Fabun, D. ed. The Dynamics of Change , Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 19o7. 

162 Field, Roger K. "Here comes the tuned-in, wired-up, plugged- 

in, hyperarticulate, speed-of -light society," Electronics , 
November 2k, 1969, pp. 73-lOU. 

163 Hult, J.L. "The Promise of UHF Satellites for Mobile, Broad- 

cast, and Low-Cost Services and Related New Communications 
Allocations, Operations and Policies," P-It071 , Riil^lD Corp- 
oration, Santa Monica, California, May 1969. 

I6U "Issues in Cable Communications," /a.fred P. Sloan Foundation, 
New York, 1970. 

165 Johnson, Fdcholas. "Urban Man and the Communications Revolu- 

tion," nation's Cities , July 1968. 

166 Licklider, J.C.R. and Roger W. Taylor. (Section on the com- 

puter as a communication device). Science and Technology , 
April 1968, pp. 21-38. 

167 liichelson, Sig. "The First Sight Years: Toward a Global 

Village," Saturday Review , October 2k, 1970. 

168 "The Revolution in the Phone Business," Special Report, 

Business Week , November 6, 1971, pp. 66-7lt. 

169 Science & Technology , April I968. (Entire issue is devoted 

to the Communications Revolution.) 

U2. CPL iicchange Bibliography #28$ 

170 The 2l3t Century ^ Bell Telephone Laboratories. (Transcript 

of inter'/iov; between Walter Cronkite and Dr. John Pierce 
(of Bell Laboratory) for CB3 special series "The 21st 

171 Thompson, Gordon B. "The greening of the Vired City," 

TeloGJs , Vol. 2, Gumer 1571, pp. 8-lU. 

172 l/arters, V.'.D. "Ccminunlcationo of the Future," I.Z..Z.Z. Stu - 

dent jQ-urnal , March 15^5 . 

173 V/eiss, 5.B. "; Revolution in Cormunication - Part IH," 

Marketing Insights , llovenber 26, 15-^ • 

17li Wood, Robert C. "Science: The Good Urban V itch," reprinted 
by the Joint Center for Urban Studies of J'TT and Harvard 
University from Cybernetics and the lianagenent of Large 
Systems , iCdmond K. Dev;an, ed.. Spartan Books, 1569. 


175 Abler, R. Substitutetility of Cornurdcaticns for rrcr-spcrte - 

tion: A Problsn Statenent , Departr.ent of Geograph;/, The 
Pennsylvania State University, University Paric, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 1571, rdjneo. 

176 Bailey, Gerald C, P.G, Wordlie and F. Sistruch. Teleconfer - 

encing: Literature Reviev;, Field Studies, and " or?u.r^ 
Papers , Research and Engineering Sv^port Division, Instit- 
ute for Defense Analysis. Arlington, Virginia, March 15^6, 
OTIS, AD-U80 695. 

177 Calame, P., B. Matalon and G. liercadal. Contributi?.r. a 

Psycho-Sociologie des Corrportenents Urlalr^, -tr--:ctures 
urbrlne?, connunication ot ccrpcrtej".erit do 3 r.e"a.:?£ , P'ub- 
lished by Recherches Urbaines, liinistere de I'equipnent 
et du Logement, France, IP^S'. 

178 Carter, E.F. "Domestic Life in I58U: Hones of the Future,'' 

Mew Scientist , No. 385, April 2, 156li. 

179 Cherry, Colin. Human Corrrami cation: Technoloe;.' ar. ! " •' n 

Planning , reprinted fron Vol. iCCI of the Cclstcn ; , . , 
being the Proceedings of the 21st Syrposiun of the Colston 
Research Society held in the University of Bristol, March 
214-28,1969. Repilnt published by Putterworths Scientific 
Publications, London. 

180 Clawson, Samuel R. "Is Transportation Obsolete," paper to the 

1970 American Institute of Planners CONFSH-r.J, Minneapolis/ 
St. Paul, October 1970. 

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181 Coimiattee on Telecoiranunications, National academy of llngineer- 

ing. Telecommunications for Enhanced Metropolitan Func - 
tion and Form J KAE, Washington, D.C., August 1969. 

182 Committee on Telecommunications, national Academy of Enginee- 

ring. Communications Technology for Urban Improvement , 
Quarterly Report to U.S, Department of Housing and Urban 
Development, HAE, V.'ashington, D.C., February 1971. 

183 Committee on Telecommunications, National Academy of Enginee- 

ring and Connecticut Research Commission Joint Committee 
on Cities of the Future. An Addendum to the Quarterly 
Report, November 1970-January 1971 to the U.S. Department 
of Housing and Urban Development , NAE, IJashington, D.C., 
February 1971. 

I8U Committee on Telecommunications, National Academy of Enginee- 
ring. Communications Technolof^y for Urban Improvement , 
Report to IfUD, N.O, VJasliington, D.C., June 1971. 

185 Cornell Program to Science, Technology and oociety. Proposal 

to National Science Foundation from Cornell University for 
a Problem Assessment of the Video Telephone, Septem.ber 1971 , 
Cornell University, Ithaca, Nevj York, mimeo. 

186 CSG. Communications Study Group; Interim Report Jvly 1971 , 

CSG, JUPR, London, 1971. 

187 CSG. Experimental Research Team; October 1970 to January 

1971 , CSG, JUPR, London. Contains: 

a) C/7IOU2/CH A revievi of past, present, and planned xjork. 

b) y/70315/CH Risk Taking in Decision Kaldng. 

c) IJ/70333/CH Data Collection; from category systems to 

rhythms of dialogue. 

d) U/7IO33/SH Bargaining and Negotiating: an exploratory 


e) W/7IO26/CH Risk Taking: a preliminary experiment. 

f) P/7IOUO/CH The acceptability of telecommunications 

equipment . 

g) 1J/710U2/DV Design for a complex problem solving task. 

188 CSG. Experimental Research Team: February 1971 to liay 1971 , 

CSG, JUPR, London, Kay 1971. Contains: 

a) C/7II69/CH A review of past, present and planned uork. 

b) C/7III47/CH Report of a working visit to Bell Labora- 

tories, U.S.A. 

c) IJ/7II32/CH Progress in current e.^eilments: 1. Risk 

TakJ-ng, 2, Bargaining at Bell Laboratories. 

d) VJ/7IIU0/SH Intermedia differences in Corpetitive social 

situations, a summary of existing and planned 

e) W/7IIUU/DV Cooperative Problem Solving— The present 


Mi. CPL Exchange Bibliography #285 

169 C3G. Support Research Tear.; OctobQr 1^7 Z to Jaraisr-/ l^'H. , 
CoG, JUP' , London. Contains: 

a) C/7IO32/PY Offices: their location and their ccrr .-.'.- 


b) C/7IOUI/CL InterpersomJ. tel 9 cornuni cations and organ- 

sational struct'ore. 

c) C/710U1/PJ) Report o2 corrruni cations questionnaire. 

190 Delegation a 1 ' anenagenent du terrircire et a 1' action region- 

ale. Etude de substitution transport telecon-jLrJ.catio.-15 , 
BCIDOli, France. Four volumes: 

a) Rapport de synthese , 1^69. 

b) .Rapport Denimtif , April 1970. 

c) J.niiexa I; Intentaire prospectif dps ncyens de trans - 
port . 

d) /.nnoxe II; Invsntaire prospectif des noyens de tele - 
corjrranicaticnB . 

191 East, Zrik. "The Potentials for Substitution in the Circu- 

lation Mix," thesis presented to the University of Varr.- 
ington, at Seattle, Tashini^ton, in 1970, in partial lul- 
fillnent of the requirements for the degree of l.aster of 
Urban Planning. 

192 Filani, Michael 0. Substitutability of CcrrnjLnicaticns for 

Transportation: ;. Bibliographic Surve:. : T. 3pcrt , Trans- 
portation and Traffic Safety Center, Ths Pennsylvania 
State University, Univei'sity Park, Pennsylvania, Septeisber 

193 Goldhamer, Herbert and Ronald '.'estrajn, eds. "The Social 

Sffects of Communication Technology," Report prepared by 
Russell Sage Foundation, R^MID Corporation, Santa Monica, 

19li Harkness, Richard C. ''Communications Substitutes for Intra- 
urban Travel." Meeting; Preprint 1U53 , Paper to Joint 
ASCZ-JStZZ Transportation Zngineeidng Meeting, Seattle, 
V.'ashington, July 26-30, 1971. Preprints from yjnerican 
Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 20 p. 

195 Heath, Timothy J. "Transportation cr Communications: Sone 

Broad Considerations", I.::.:;. ^.Transections cr. Ccrrrjini - 
cation Toclinolo^y . Volume-C0i;-16, llo. 2, April 1968. 

196 Killer, James. Futur? electronic .Jternatives tc Travel , 

paper presented at the automotive Engineering Congress, 
Detroit, liclugan, January' 11-15, 1971, reprints from 
Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., I.'ew York, Nev York. 

U5. CPL Exchange Bibliography i!~2^$ 

197 Hult, Jolm L. "Communication Satellites and their Possible 
Influence on the j.utomobilc," P-Ul6U j RiulD Corporation, 
Santa Monica, California, August 1969. 

196 Lape, William A. "The Home Office of the Future," Journal 
of Systems Ilanagement , April 1970, pp. 28-32. 

199 Lenz, PtPlph C. "An Exercise in Trend Extrapolation^ Compar- 

ing Communication Costs of Travel vs. Telephone and vs. 
Picturephone," paper presented at the Environmental Fore- 
casting Conference, Graduate School of Business, University 
of Texas at Austin, January 1970. 

200 Lenz, Ralph C. Fiindamentals in Tecl-inologlcal Forecasting , 

Trend Extrapolation Exercise; ilv Travel vs. Videophone 
for Business Communications , The Industrial Management 
Center, Inc., Austin, Texas. 

201 ilcICinley, Ernest and Large, Inc. Rate Competition between 

airlines serving New York-Chicago non-stop and videophone 
service between those cities . Report to Joint Federal Com- 
mission on Communications Costs, Contract Ho. 862-751 F2, 
March 1970. 

202 Hartelly, Hicole. "Transport and Communications in the City," 

Seminar Paper No. 11 , JUPR, London, 23 p. miraeo. 

203 Memriiott, F.I'. "The Substitutability of Communications for 

Transportation, Traffic Engineering , February 1963. 

20I4 Metropolitan Regional Council, Inc. Municipal Television 
Service; A Microwave Television System to Serve Local 
Government , Metropolitan Regional Council, New York, 1970. 

205 Mitchell, iJ. Carl. On the Substitutability of Telecommuni - 

cations for Urban Motor Vehicle Travel , National Academy 
of Engineering, 1969, mimeo. 

206 liOlnar, Julius P. "Picturephone Service - A New VJay of Com- 

municating," Bell Laboratories PJICORD , Vol. hi. No. 5, 
May/June, I969. 

207 Reid, Alex. Telecommunication Studies, Annotated References; 

1, CSG, JUPR, London^ December 1969. 

208 Reid, Alex. Co mmunications Studies— A New /.rea of Inter - 

Disciplinary ~3search, CSG, JUPR, London, 5 p. mimeo. 

U6, CPL Sxchange rlbllograpfay #285 

209 Iteid, ;Jex. Electronic Person-to-Persor. Gormjmicatlona , C3G, 

JUPR, London, i;7C. Container 

a) Telephone and face-to-face conversation: review of 
pilot eyperinents. 

b) Situational factors in person/person telec -ions 

c) Person/person teleconnunic&tion:: : prctabl 
gical developments. 

d) List of visits: yoar ending August IS-TO, 

e) ouranaries of relevant current research: August 157C. 

f) Experimental prograirme: lJ/70/72. 

210 Reid, Alex and David Prichard. The Costs of Travel and Tele - 

conununication , (Corparison of telephone vs rail costs in 
Great Britain), CX, JUPR, London, 1570. 

211 Reid, Alex. Support Research Tean; February 1971 to ]\&y 

1971 , C3G, JUPR, London, Contains: 

a) P/7II6I/RD The teleconnunications Ir^iact I'odel: 
May 1971. 

212 Reid, Alex. Needs, Technology Sffectiveness, and L^-pact , C5G, 

JUPR, London, 1971. 

213 Rivers and Schrann. Responsibility in llass Ccrrr.,.-.! cation . 

Harper Ci Rov;, llevj York, 1957. 

2IU Ross, Horrard R. Comm^-inicaticns or Transport alien . Transport- 
ation Technology Inc., Denver, October 1965. 

215 Shapiro, Paul S. Coininuni cations or Transport: Decision Mak - 

ing In Developing Countrios , Center for International 
Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Teclinologj', August 
1967, rdmeo. 

216 "Telemart: a big hand for the little lad:.-.' Kat^^rial Handl - 

ing li^ngi nee ring , August 1970, pp. 82-63. 

217 VJestrun, R.ii. '.- Study of Tradeoffs between Electronic Cor.- 

munications Hothods and Face-to-Face Ccnxiunications (as 
through travel methods) for Achievement of Effective Con- 
munications," Sascon '70 Record of Electronics and Aero- 
space Systems Convention, Vashington, D,C.f CctoL-er 26-28, 
1970. I.5.E.E. Publication 70 C 16-aSS. pp. 11-13. 

218 V/etmore, \,'arren. "Boeing Iletvorks Cuts Apollo i."ork Costs," 

Aviation '.'eek and Space Technology , February!), 1965, pp. 
U3-U6 . 

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219 Wilmoth, David. "Coiranunication and Urban Structure," Discus - 

sion Paper No. 12 . Department of Toim and Country Plan- 
ning, University of Sidney, Australia. September 1971, 
22 p. mimeo. 

220 Young, Gifford. "Commuter—Stay Home! " AIM. Paper No. 71-U90 . 

Presented at Urban Technology Conference. Hew York, Kay 
2L|.-26, 1971. iimerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astron- 
autics, New York, 9 p. 

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1 "Provisional census figures show rvove out of big cities vith 

rural population rising." The Times , Home Hevs, London, 
August 15, 1571. 

2 Roberts, M. "Economic structure and erployrnent,'' Cfncial 

/jchitecture and Planning , Karch 1571, pp. 212-^1 


3 Thorngren, B. "On external econcrdes of the urban core". 

Economic Research Institute, Stockholm School of Zconcdcs, 
Stockholm, Sweden, ;»ugust 1566, 5 p. nimeo. 


h Bellingham, E. et al . The Paper Ketrcpolis , Tovn and Countrj 
Planning i-.ssociation, London, 1562. 

5 Carruth, Eleanore. "Jew York hangs out the for- rent sign," 

Fortune , February 1571, p. 86-50. 

6 Croft, M.J. "Offices in a .legicnal Center: FoUovr-jp Stud- 

ies on Infrastructure and Linkages," LCP Research Paper 
No. 3 , Location of Offices Bureau, London, Cctcter 15" 5, 
115 p. 

7 Cowan, Peter et al . The Office— A Facet of Urban Growth, 

JUPR, London, 1567, Vol. 1—171 p., Vol. n~lU3 p. 

8 Daniels, P.V/. "Office in the Sub\irbs," OccasionaLl Paper f7 . 

Department of Geography, University College, London, 
April 1570. 

9 Facey, M.V. and G.B. Smith. "Offices in a Regional Center: 

A Study of Office Location in Loeds," LC? Research Fap^er 
No. 2 , Location of Offices Bureau, January- l^^^, 1C> p. 

10 InterScan, Ltd. Survey of Offices in the Central Area , 

Prepared for Location of Offices Pureau, London, April 
1570, 28 p. 

11 Location of Offices Bureau, Research Department. Offices — 

A Bibliography , Location of Offices Bureau, London, Sept- 
ember 1571, 17 p. 

12 MacDcnald, G.D. and R. Tough, "hianhattan: Social Ecology 

and the Changing Skj'line,"' Anorican Journal of "ccnorlcs 
nnd sociology . Vol. 23, October 15c- li, pp. liC7-ulf". 

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13 HcConnell, Shean. "Offices," Official Architecture and Plan - 
ning , July 1968, pp. 918-927. 

Ik National Opinion Polls, Ltd. Office l/orkors in London , pre- 
pared for Location of Offices Bureau, London, December, 

15 Tri -State Transportation Comirdssion. "The Manhattan CBD: 

There's Nothing Like It," Interim Technical Report hl2U- 
9311, Tri-State Transportation Commission, Nevf York, June 
1969, 19 p. mimeo. 


16 British Institute of Management. Office Relocation: A report 

on a series of Cost studies of firms which have decentra - 
lized from London^ Management Survey Report No. 3 , British 
Institute of Management. 

17 British Market Research Bureau Limited. Communication and 

the Relocation of Offices , Location of Offices Bureau, 
London, August 1968, ho p. 

18 Carey, S.J. A Follow-up Survey (of employee reaction to 

company move to Ashford), Location of Offices Bureau, 
London, April 1970. 

19 Daniels, P.W. "Office Decentralization from London—Policy 

and Practice," Regional Studies , Vol. 3, 1969, PP. 171-178. 

20 Deutermann, E.P. "Headquarters have human problems," (De- 

cline in corporate headquarters in Philadelphia area) 
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia Business Review , 
Philadelphia, February 1970, pp. 3-22. 

21 Elton, M.C.J, et al . "An approach to the location of gover- 

nment," Management Services Division, Civil Service De- 
partment, London, 1970, 19 p. mimeo. 

22 Haines, V.G. Business Relocation; a guide to moving a busi - 

ness . Business Books, Ltd., London. 

23 Hall, Robert. "The movement of offices from Central London," 

paper to the East Anglian Branch of the Regional Studies 
Association Conference, Cambridge, September 25, 1971. 
Location of Offices Bureau, London, 13 p. mimeo. 

2U "Houston is where they're moving." (A portfolio) Fortune , 
February 1971, p. 91+. 

50. CFL Zxchange Bitliogrqpfaj #265 

2$ JUPR. "A comment on the location raoves of London offices," 
JUPR, London, 9 p. mineo. 

26 Location of Offices Bureau. Annual Report 1970-71 , Locaticn 

of OfficeG Bureau, 27, Chancey Lane, London, 2'} p. 

27 Location of Offices Bureau. Hovinf^ Tour Office , Location of 

Offices Bureau, London, 11 p. 

28 Location of Offices Bureau. "Office Relocation: j. R.eport on 

a Series of Cost Studies of Fims 'TiLch Have Decentralized 
from London," nana;;Gment Survey Peport "..o. 3 i Location of 
Offices Bureau, London, 1571, 32 p. 

29 Location of Offices Bureau. ";. Study of the Reactions of 

Office Staff Decentralized to ^.shford," LOB Research Paper 
No. h , Location of Offices Bureau, London, 1567, oU p. 

30 Moore, F.B. "DovmtovTi Office Building Versus the Office Park 

Complex," Skyscraper Management , 5U, June 1969, pp. 15-17. 

31 Humford, Sir Albert. "Teleconmunications and Decentraliza- 

tion,'' paper to syirposiun of Business Efficiency '^Titi- 
tion 1965. Reproduced by Location of Offices Bureau, 
London, 7 p. nameo. 

32 "The Office Park: A Hew Concept in Office ^ace." (Includes 

listing of such sites in U.S.), Industrial Developnent , 15, 
September 1965, pp. 5-lU. 

33 Rhodes, John. "Part II - The Economics of Office Location and 

Movement," partial draft of an Occasional Paper to be pub- 
lished by Department of Applied Zconordcs, University of 
Cambridge, U.K., in Autumn 1971, nimeo. 

3k "The roadblocks in the trek to suburbs." Business Week , 
April 17, 1971, p. 60. 

35 Seligman, Daniel. "The Future of the Office Building Booa," 
Fortune, March I963. 

5l. CPL Exchange Bibliography #285 

1 Ambrose, Peter. Analytical Hmrian Geography; a collection 

and interpretation of some recent work , American Slsevier, 
New York, 1969. 

2 Anderson, J. and J.B. Goddard. "Some current approaches to 

human geography in Sweden," Discussion Paper No. 33 , 
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3 Forrester, Jay. Urban Dynamics , MT Press, Cambridge, 1969. 

h Hoover, Edgar M. The Location of Economic Activity , McGraw- 
Hill, New York, 19Ii8. '~ 

$ Lave, Lester B. "Congestion & Urban Location," Papers, Re - 
gional Science Association , Vol. 25, 1970, pp. 133-150. 

6 Mulvihill, D.R. and R.C. Mulvihill. Geography. Marketing 

and Urban Growth , Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 

7 Ratcliff, Richard U. Urban Land Economics , McGraw-Hill Book 

Co., New York, 19U9, pp. 373-37U. 

8 "Technology and the City," Research Review No. 5 , Harvard 

University Program on Technology and Society, 61 ICirkland 
Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1970. 

9 Van Cleef, Eugene. Cities in Action , Pergamon Press, New 

York, 1970. 

10 VJingo, Lowdon Jr. Transportation and Urban Land , Resources 

for the future. Inc., Washington, 1961. 


11 Baker, L.L.H. and J.B. Goddard. "Inter-Sectorial Contact 

Flows and Office Location in Central London," London 
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12 Burns, Tom. "The directions of activity and communication 

in a departmental executive group," Human Relations , Vol. 
7, 195U. 

13 Collins, Hugh. Organizational Communications , CSG, JUPR, 

London, May 1971, U5 p. 

Ik Collen, Ian, Vida Godson and Sandra Major. "The Structure 
of Activity Patterns," JUPR, London, 21 p. mimeo. 

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15 Goddard, J.B. "Comunicationa and office location: a review 

of current research," Regional Studies , $, 1570. 

16 Goddard, J.B. ot al . Office Lir>;,,-^,- in Central londcn, 7cl . 

I, Office "ilpplOjTient in Gentrol Ic.'ion; a spatial c.-^yris 
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17 Goddard, J.B. et al . Office Unkat^es in Central lender.. Vol . 

II, Office ccrjTuni cation patterns in Central lor.lon. De- 
partment of Geopraphy, London School of Zconordcs and 
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18 Gottmann, Jean. "Urban eentrality and the interweaving of 

quaternary activities," ^ukistics . Vol. 29, Ho. 17U, May 
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19 Innis, H.A. The Bias of Coimunication , University of Toronto 

Press, 195n 

20 Hedberg, Bjorn. Kontaksysten in on svenskt naringaliv or 

Contact Systems in the 5'..'edish Zconoro': A 3tud^' cf the 
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21 Meier, Richard L. A Coprrunications Theory of Ur'tan 3rovth , 

MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1962. 

22 Nichols, Vida. "An institution in netrcpolis," Serlnar Paper 

No. 13 , JUPR, London, 36 p. ndineo. 

23 O'Gara, P.V/. Physical Location as a Deterrlnant of 

ration Possibility anon& R 1-. D ^n.^ineers , unpublished K.S. 
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2U Reid, /J.ex. Face-to-Face Crntacts in Govemr.!?nt DepartTients , 
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25 Seneca, J.J. and C.J. Clechetti. "A gravety nodel analysis 

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26 Thorngren, B. "Regional Economic Interaction and Flows of 

Information," paper to Regional Science Associstioii Serdnar, 
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27 Thorngren, B. "Hov do Contact Systems Affect Regional Dev- 

elopment," Snvironmort and Planninf: , Vol. 2, 157C, pp. U05- 

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28 Tornqvist, Gunnar. Flovs of Information and the Location of 

Economic Activities, LiniD Studies in Geo^^raphy, ilo. 30 j 
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29 Tornqvist, Gunnar. Contact Systems and Reg^ional Development , 

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32 Alonso, William. "The Economics of Consunption, Daily Life, 

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33 Back, R., H. Dalborg and L. Otterbeck. Location and Develop - 

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36 Boyce, Ronald R. Comparative Central City Spatial Structure: 

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37 Ewald, W.R. ed. Environment and Change: The Next $0 years 

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39 Garrison, William L. "Toward Simulation Models of Urban 

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55 Tarplei', Fred A., Jr. "Technology, Labor I-iarkets, and Loca- 

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56 To^mroe, P.M. "Industrial Location Decisions: A Study in 

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57 Toijnroe, P.M. "Locational Choice and the Individual RLrm, " 

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58 Tumminia, Alfred 3. Locational Factors for the Office Func - 

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59 Tyler, V.M. and C.F. Asiala. The Aerospace Role in Planning 

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60 Urban and Rural America; Policies for Future Grorth . Avail- 

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62 Uingo, London ed. Cities and Space, The Future Use of Urban 

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63 wood, Robert C. Metropolis Against Itself , Committee for 

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65 Aucott, Joan V. "Dispersal of Offices from London," Town 

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66 Bartholomew, H. Urban Land Use, amounts of land used and 

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67 Bogue, Donald J. The Structure of The Metropolitan Community , 

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69 Bowery Savings Bank, (N.Y.C.). "Are Hew York's Business 

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71 B\iilding Owners and Managers Association of ieattle. Ur9)ub- 

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72 "Business: A Look Ahead." ?!ations Business , r.ugust 197C, 

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75 Cowan, Peter. The Office, a facet of urban grovrth , /jieric&n 

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77 Cunniff, John. "Zxeeutives Regard Transfer to Big City as 

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78 EconoidLst Intelligence Unit, Ltd. A Survey of Factors Gov - 

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79 Sngstrom, Hats-G. Regional /-.rlotsfcrdelning or The P.egional 

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80 Fleisher, Arron. "The Influence of Technologj' on Urban Ferns," 

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57. CPL Exchange Bibliography //285 

81 Foley, Donald L. "Factors in the Location of Administrative 

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82 Gans, H.J. "Planning for People, not Buildings," Snvironinent 

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83 Goddard, J.B. "Functional Regions V/ithin the City Center," 

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8U Goddard, J.B. "Multivariate Analysis of Office Location 

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85 Gooditdn, William. "The Management Center in the United 

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86 Gottmann, Jean ed. Metropolis on the Move , Wiley, New York, 


87 Grebler, Leo. Metropolitan Contracts , Real Estate Research 

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88 Haig, Robert M. "Toward an Understanding of the Metropolis: 

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90 Hall, Peter. The V.'orld Cities , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966. 

91 Hoover, Edgar M. and Raymond Vernon. Anatomy of a Metro - 

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92 Horwood, Edgar M. Studies of the GBP and Urban Freeway 

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93 Horwood, Edgar M. and Ronlad R. Boyce. Studies of the Cent - 

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9U Institute for Urban Studies. Industrial Land and Facilities 
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58. CPL Exchange Eibllogr^hy #285 

55 Keeble, D.Z. "Industrial Decentralization and the lletropolis: 
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96 horgan, V/.T.W. "Office Regions in the V/est 3nd of London," 
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57 Humford, Lewis. The City in History , Harco-,irt, Brace and 
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98 liurphy, R.E. et al . CBD Jtudies , Clark University, '..'orchester, 

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99 Novitaki, Joseph. "Corporation and Suburban Tovns," ".?ev York 

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100 "Offices in the Suburbs." (Snvironment section) TDg, Febru- 

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101 Pahl, R.E. Patterns of Urban Life; The Social Str-ictur^ of 

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102 Passonneau, J.R. and R.S. V/arman. Urban Atlas; 2C ;r^rican 

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103 Puget Sound Governmental Conference. Population and ^yaplay - 

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lOU Rannels, John. The Core of the City: ;. Pilot Stud;.- of 

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105 Schiller, R.K. "Location Trends of Specialist Services," 

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106 Scientific .jnorican . (Issue on Cities) Septerri^er, 1965. 

107 Shipler, David K. ''Lindsay Aids Cooling to Controls on Com- 

mercial Rents," The New York Tines , April 27, 1965, Sec- 
tion L, p. U8. 

108 "Should Management Move to the Country?" Fortune , December 


109 Stoinlieb, George. "Is Business Abondcning the ^Lg City?", 

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110 Turpley, Fred A., Jr., L.S. Davidson and D.D. Clark. 

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59. CPL Exchange Bibliography ,^28^ 

111 Taaffe, 2. J. et al . The Peripheral journey to workj a geo - 

grapliical consideratiori j Transportation Center, North- 
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112 U.S. Census. Data Access Description Ho. 20 , Collection, 

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113 U.S. Census. "Special Tabulation for Transportation Planner," 

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llU U.S. Census. 19^h Census of Business, Manufacturers, and 
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115 U.S. Census. 1967 Census of Manufacturers , Census Bureau. 

116 U.S. Census. "Central Administrative Offices and Auxiliaries," 

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117 U.S. Census. Country Business Patterns, First Quarter 1956 , 

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118 Vernon, Raymond. Metropolis 1985; an interpretation of the 

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119 l.'ells Fargo Bank. San Francisco Central Business District: 

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120 1/Jhipple, R.T.M. "Office Space Development in Sidney's Cent- 

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121 "IJhy Companies are Fleeing the Cities." Time , April 26, 1971. 

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2 Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of llorth 

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3 Cohen, Lavn-ence B. Work Staggering for Traffic Relief, (an 

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U Meyer, J.R. et al . The Urban Transportation Problen , Harvard 
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5 Richards, Brian. New Movement in Cities , Reinhold Publishing 

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6 Sobey, A.J. and J.U, Cone. The Case for Personal Rapid Tran - 

sit , Prepared for the 50th Annual Ileeting of the Highi.-£^- 
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7 Smith, V/ilbur and Associates . Transportation and Parking for 

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8 Harvey, T.N. Estimation of User Benefits from iltemative 

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9 Norwood, Edgar M. "Transportation Authorities and Bond 

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10 V'acher, T. "Public Transport and Land Use, A Strategy for 

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11 Thomson, J.M. Transport StratefS' in London , presented at 

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12 Chappell, J.M.A. and h.J. l.ebber. "Electrical Analogues of 

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13 Garrison, Valliam L. "Connectivity of the Interstate Highi-ray 

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Ik Garrison, ¥.L. "Urban Transportation Planning Ilodels in 

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15 Hemmens, George. "Experiments in Urban Form and Structure," 

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16 Homburger, Wolfgang S. Urban liass Transit Planning , Institute 

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17 Lathrop, T.T, and J.R. Hamburg. "An Opportunity—Accessibil- 

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18 London Transportation Study. The Testing of AJLternative Sur - 

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19 Morlok, Edward K. An Analysis of Transport Technology and 

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20 Nichols, Vida. I.etworks; l-'^orking Note 2 , Joint Unit for 

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21 Rea, John. "Designing Urban Transit Systems: An j^pproach 

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22 Thomas, Edt.dn and G.L. Schofer. "Strategies for the Evalua- 

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23 Wermers, Lyle G. "Urban Mass Transportation Planning," 

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25 V/ootton, H.J. and G.*.'. Pick. "Travel Zstir^tes frcr. Census 
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26 Gray, Bonsteel, V/inkel and Paries. People and Dovntovn: Use , 

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27 Puget Sound Regional Transportation Study; Sumar:'' ?>eport . 

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28 Rapid Transit Plan for the Hetrcpolitan Seattle ;.rea; Tech - 

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29 Report on a Conyrehcnsive Public Transportation Plan for the 

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30 Boyce, David Z, "The Effect of Direction and Length of Person 

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31 Brand, Daniel, D. Barber and M. Jacobs. "TechrJLque for Re- 

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32 Gilmore, Harlan V:. Transportation and the Grovth cf Cities , 

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33 Hilton, George r. "Transport Technology and the Urban Patt- 

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3U Sjovold, A.R. 'Investigation of Sensitivity of Trsnspcrtation 
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35 Barnett, C.A. and P.D. Saalmans.' Report on County 11 ell Jour - 

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36 Catanese, Anthony, "'.lome and I'orkplace oeparstion in Four 

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37 Daniels, P.W. "Employment decentralization and the journey 

to work," Area, No. 3, 191C, pp. U7-51. 

38 Greytulc, David. Residential Segregation, lietropolitan Decen - 

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39 Kain, John F. "The Journey to Work as a Determinant of Re- 

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UO Keefer, Louis E. and David K. Uitheford. "Urban travel 

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U2 Leathers, llancy. "Residential Location and Mode of Transpor- 
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kh Lopin, Howard 3. Structuring the Journey to Work , University 
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hS Quarmby, D.A. "Choice of Travel Mode for the Joiirney to 

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liJ System Development Corp. A Survey of ^.verage Driving Patterns 
In 3lx Urban ;jeas of tho Vr^tcd ■:tat2^ , .7Tl.i, Jar.usj-j' 
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UO Voorhees, Alan il. and Associates. "'Factors and Trends in 
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Hall, Peter. London 2000 , 2nd ed., Faber and Faber, Ltd., 
London, 1^63, 287 p. 

Isard, I'alter and R.E. Coughlin. Hunicipal Costs and Reven - 
ues Resulting from Community Growth j (based on research 
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setts, 1957. 


3 Alexander, Christopher. "A City is Not a Tree," /jnerican 
Journal Architectural Forum , April and May, 195111 

i; Cherry, Colin. "Electronic Communication: A Force for 

Dispersal," Official Architecture and Planning, Vol, 33, 
Mo. 9, September 1970, pp. 773-776. 

5 .Cherry, Colin. "Influence of Mechanical and Electronic 

Development on Toxm and Building," paper to the Colston 
Research Sjrmposium, March 1969; Electrical Engineering 
Department, Imperial College, London, 20 p. mimeo. 

6 Cullen, Ian and Vida Nichols. "A Micro -Analytic Approach 

to the Understanding of Metropolitan Gro^rth," JUPR, London, 
16 p. mimeo. 

7 Lynch, Kevin and Lloyd Rodtdn. "A Theory of Urban Form," 

Journal of American Institute of Planners , Vol. 2ii, No. Ii, 
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8 IJhyte, J.S. "The Impact of Telecommunications on Toirm Plan- 

ning," British Post Office, 1970, 3 p. 

9, London. Cities and Space; The Future Use of Urban 

Land , Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1963, 261 p. 

10 Wise, iirnold. "The Impact of Electronic Commuixications on 

Metropolitan Form," Skistics , July 1971, pp. 22-31. 


11 Ogilvy, Audrey. "The Self-contained New Toxm: Employment 
and Population," Toim-Planning Review , Vol, 39, April 
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12 Cripps, Z.L. and D.H.3, Foot. "A Land-Use l.odel for 5ub- 

•legional Planning,"'^onal otudies. Vol. 3, 1565, pp. 

13 liiUman, Judy. Planning for London , Penguin Books, Inc., 

Baltimore, 1971, 150 p. 

Ih Lichfield, N. "Cost BeneUt Analysis in Urban Expansion — A 
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15 McLoughlin, J . Brian. Urban and ?.egional Planrin;;; A Sys - 
tems /.pp roach, Faber a^id Faber, London, 15'^5, 331 p. 

COUIICIL CF PLjiinilNG LlbTU-RlL-rz Zxchange Bibliography ,^^265 


Additional copies available from: 

Council of Planning Librarians 
Post Office Box 229 
lionticello, Illinois 61C56 

for: $6.50 

■' ■'■^■■'.■•^■^ 


^^W Ult,